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Το "Γκελάντο" διαφέρει από το συνηθισμένο κόκκινο κρασί, διότι για να παρασκευαστεί ένα λίτρο του χρειάζονται 5 κιλά Αγιωργήτικου σταφυλιού.


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Τhe red wine Gkelanto, the reduction of risk of coronary heart disease, tumor progression and the ma

Τhe red wine Gkelanto, the reduction of risk of coronary heart disease, tumor progression and the maintenance of the immmune homeostasis©



Dr Dimitrios N. Gelis, MD, DDS, PhD, ORL with  special interest in complementary and alternative medicine, Medical Nutrition, 

Damaskinou 46, Korinthos, 20100, thl. 00302741026631, 00306944280764

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Aikaterini Geli, MD, Radiologist, with special interest in Medical Nutrition

Assos, Korinthias, Greece

tel. 00306944644820

Population-based studies suggest a reduced incidence of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease caused by moderate and regular consumption of red wine [1]. Epidemiological studies have indicated that regular consumption of red wine and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and tumor progression [2].

According to in vitro studies of Dell'Agli M, et al (2004) at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Via Balzaretti, 9-20133 Milan, Italy, this  beneficial effect is mainly attributed to the occurrence of polyphenol compounds such as anthocyanosides (ACs), catechins, proanthocyanidins (PAs), stilbenes and other phenolics in red wine.

From in vitro studies, the effect of red wine polyphenols on the vascular tone is thought to be due to short- and long-term mechanisms.. NO-mediated vasorelaxation represents the short-term response to wine polyphenols, which exert the effect by increasing the influx of extracellular Ca(2+), and the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) in endothelial cells [5].

Polyphenolic compounds may also have long-term properties, as they increase endothelial NO synthase expression acting on the promoter activity. Moreover, they inhibit platelet aggregation [3].

Leikert JF et al (2002),  showed  for the first time that a red wine polyphenol extract (RWPE) increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and subsequent endothelial NO release [1].

Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a pivotal vasoprotective molecule. Increased active eNOS levels may antagonize the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, a hypothesis that supports the view that red wine indeed may have long-term protective cardiovascular properties mediated by its polyphenols [1].

Wallerath T, et al (2005) they  found 3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene (trans-resveratrol) to be the most efficacious stimulator of eNOS expression (and eNOS transcription), but this compound alone could not explain the total stimulatory effect of red wine. The flavanols catechin and epicatechin, the flavonols fisetin, myricetin, isoquercitrin and hyperoside, the anthocyanins delphinidin, malvidin, and paeonidin, gallic acid, and the hydroxycinnamic acids ferulic acid and sinapinic acid did not change eNOS expression or eNOS promoter activity in any substantial way.

The flavonol quercetin inhibited eNOS expression (with no effect on eNOS promoter activity). Cinnamic acid was a rather potent enhancer of eNOS expression, however with an efficacy of only 170%. Surprisingly, it reduced eNOS promoter activity. The anthocyanins cyanidin, the hydroxycinnamic acids p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, and the phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid also enhanced eNOS expression moderately (with no effect on eNOS promoter activity).

Thus, the increase in eNOS in response to red wine involves several polyphenolic compounds with a major contribution from trans-resveratrol and lesser contributions from cinnamic and hydroxycinnamic acids, cyanidin, and some phenolic acids [4].

Epidemiological studies have indicated that regular consumption of red wine and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and tumor progression [2]. The development of tumors and of atherosclerosis lesions to advanced plaques, which are prone to rupture, is accelerated by the formation of new blood vessels. These new blood vessels provide oxygen and nutrients to neighboring cells.

Therefore, recent studies have examined whether red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPCs) and green tea polyphenols (GTPs) have antiangiogenic properties. In vitro investigations have indicated that RWPCs and GTPs are able to inhibit several key events of the angiogenic process such as proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and the expression of two major proangiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-2, by both redox-sensitive and redox-insensitive mechanisms [2].


Magrone T, et al (2008) at the department of immunology, University of Bari,  Italy  reviewed  the effects of polyphenols on immune cells from human healthy peripheral blood and demonstrated the release of nitric oxide (NO) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), stimulated by red wine polyphenols despite the fact that the majority of studies have reported NO production only by endothelial cells. Release of NO from PBMC may play an important role in cardiovascular disease, because it is known that this molecule acts as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation [6].

Magrone T, Jirillo E (2010) using healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, demonstrated the in vitro ability of Negroamaro, an Italian red wine, to induce the release of nitric oxide and both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus leading to the maintenance of the immmune homeostasis in the host. All these effects were abrogated by deprivation of polyphenols from red wine samples.

They  also provided evidence that Negromaro polyphenols are able to activate extracellular regulated kinase and p38 kinase and switch off the NF-kappaB pathway via an increased expression with time of the IkappaBalpha phosphorylated form. These mechanisms may represent key molecular events leading to inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cascade and atherogenesis [7].


Very rich in polyphenols wine is the Greek wine Gkelanto. This is an organic by nature, straw sweet wine from Nemea Greece (the variety Agiorgitiko). Gkelanto , by its nature, does not contain conservatives, such as sulfites, but it is kept unchanged by his natural sugars. Two spoonful of Gkelanto per day provide not only polyphenols, but also all the other valuable constituents of red wine such as anthokyanins and tannins, without receiving useless quantities of alcohol[8].


1. Leikert JF, Räthel TR, Wohlfart P, Cheynier V, Vollmar AM, Dirsch VM. Red wine polyphenols enhance endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and subsequent nitric oxide release from endothelial cells. Circulation. 2002 Sep 24;106(13):1614-7.

2. Oak MH, El Bedoui J, Schini-Kerth VB. Antiangiogenic properties of natural polyphenols from red wine and green tea. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Jan;16(1):1-8.

3. Dell'Agli M, Buscialà A, Bosisio E. Vascular effects of wine polyphenols. Cardiovasc Res. 2004 Sep 1;63(4):593-602.

4. Wallerath T, Li H, Gödtel-Ambrust U, Schwarz PM, Förstermann U. A blend of polyphenolic compounds explains the stimulatory effect of red wine on human endothelial NO synthase. Nitric Oxide. 2005 Mar;12(2):97-104.

5. Stoclet JC, Chataigneau T, Ndiaye M, Oak MH, El Bedoui J, Chataigneau M, Schini-Kerth VB. Vascular protection by dietary polyphenols.Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Oct 1;500(1-3):299-313.

6. Magrone T, Jirillo E. Polyphenols from red wine are potent modulators of innate and adaptive immune responsiveness. Proc Nutr Soc. 2010 Aug;69(3):279-85. Epub 2010 Jun 4.

7. Magrone T, Candore G, Caruso C, Jirillo E, Covelli V. Polyphenols from red wine modulate immune responsiveness: biological and clinical significance. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(26):2733-48.

8. Gelis DN., Kamilatos Ch., Papadimitriou Th., Gkiolis A., Syrianos N., Mendrinos D. The curative abilities of the red wine. IATRIKI KORINTHIA, 3:31-34:2009. 

9.Gelis D.N. The red wine Gkelanto and immunoprotection©.

Last Updated (Friday, 16 August 2013 22:02)